l Benefits of Military Images:
Left-Hand Side of the “Seasons Greetings: Holiday Cards” Exhibit Case
Image by W&M Libraries
Shown here is a picture of the left-hand side of the "Seasons Greetings: Holiday Cards" exhibit case on display inside the front door on the 1st floor of Swem Library at the College of William and Mary. The exhibit features Christmas, Hanukkah, and Kwanzaa cards from the late 19th century through the 1960s.
The following is from the labet text for the exhibit:
Christmas cards are modern inventions rooted in old traditions. Ancient Romans and medieval Europeans sent New Year’s greetings. By the early 1800s in both England and America, people used illustrated notepaper to send Christmas letters to distant loved ones and gave out New Year’s calling cards. The first Christmas card dates to 1843, when Englishman Henry Cole commissioned painter John Calcott Horsley to design one. By the 1860s, the development of color printing made Christmas cards readily available in England, and Americans eagerly imported them. A Boston-based lithographer, Louis Prang, in 1875 began printing and selling his own card. By 1882, he was printing five million Christmas cards annually. The growing popularity of Christmas cards resulted from the spread of free mail delivery and the invention of a traditional American Christmas in the late 1800s. Buffeted by industrialization and urbanization, threatened culturally by mass immigration from Europe, and distanced from loved ones by Americans’ geographic mobility, wealthy and middle-class Americans created a modern Christmas full of acts and rituals that harkened back to an imaginary simpler time.
Nineteenth-century Christmas cards rarely featured religious scenes. The early cards depicted flowers, trees, and birds. By the late 1800s, images grew more seasonal with greens such as ivy or holly; winter scenes such as a snow-covered church or ice skaters; or children sledding, playing with dolls, or engaged in similar activities.
By 1900, many Americans despaired over just how commercial Christmas had become and how materialistic the emphasis on gift-giving made the holiday. People turned to cards as a substitute for presents. Most popular were Christmas postcards, usually imported from Germany, depicting typical modern Christmas images such as Santas or Christmas trees. They sometimes also pointed to new technology such as cars or telephones. The first decade of the 1900s saw the establishment of major American greeting card firms, including Hallmark, Gibson, and Rust Craft. They often produced folded greeting cards with a picture and some text on the outside, lengthier text inside, and a blank page for the sender to personalize.
World War I was a milestone for Christmas cards. Anti-German feeling in the country led many Americans to boycott German goods even before the U.S. entered the War and helped end the dominance of German cardmakers in the U.S. market. Religious scenes remained uncommon. Many cards simply wished the recipient "Season’s Greetings" rather than mentioning Christmas. One observer complained that the cards "might have been designed by the President of the Moscow Society of the Godless, so far as any suggestion of the Nativity was concerned." During the 1920s, "Olde English" motifs associated the senders with the upper class and with a traditional Christmas. Also popular, however, were modern cards with sleek Art Deco graphics. During the Depression of the 1930s, cards typically were small and relatively simple in color and design.
World War II brought patriotic cards and special cards from military units. During the postwar period into the 1960s, cards depicted traditional images such as Santa Claus and snowmen. Personalization continued to be popular, with photographs adding another personal touch. The 1960s witnessed an explosion of cards sold to benefit good causes, such as UNICEF and other charities and museums.
The late 1900s also saw two other types of year-end cards. Hanukkah became more prominent as a Jewish holiday, and Hanukkah cards soon followed. In 1966, Maulanga Ron Karenga created Kwanzaa, a seven-day African American celebration highlighting principles such as unity and self-determination and sometimes people send Kwanzaa cards.
Christmas cards, meanwhile, have moved in both new directions and old. Religious cards now constitute more than 25% of sales. Humorous cards also claim a share of the market. At the same time, many people now send printed letters full of news—the letter on display here is extraordinarily early—bringing us back full circle to the Christmas letters of the early 1800s.
All material is from the Special Collections Research Center, Earl Gregg Swem Library. Curator: Beatriz Hardy, Director; Exhibit Design and Installation: Chandi Singer, Warren E. Burger Archives Specialist.
Big Sur Mud Run 2013
Image by Presidio of Monterey: DLIFLC & USAG
PRESIDIO OF MONTEREY, Calif. – The eighth presentation of the Big Sur Mud Run was held March 23 at the former Fort Ord. The sold-out run attracted 2,000 individual runners and 400 teams, with many participating in colorful costumes. The Defense Language Institute Foreign Language provided 127 volunteers for the event including "drill sergeants" strategically placed at mud pits to lead exercises and provide motivation. Proceeds from the annual Mud Run benefit youth and athletic programs of the Presidio’s Morale, Welfare and Recreation Department, the Athletic Department of CSUMB, and the Big Sur International Marathon’s youth fitness program, JUST RUN.
PHOTO by Steven L. Shepard, Presidio of Monterey Public Affairs.
Image by bill barber
Würzburg is a city in the region of Franconia which lies in the northern tip of Bavaria, Germany. Located on the Main River, it is the capital of the Regierungsbezirk Unterfranken. The regional dialect is Franconian.
The city of Würzburg is not included in district of Würzburg, but is its administrative seat. Its population is 131,320 as of December 31, 2006.
By 1000 BC a Celtic fortification stood the site of the Fortress Marienberg. It was Christianized in 686 by the Irish missionaries Kilian, Colman and Totnan. The city is first mentioned as Vurteburch in 704. The first diocese was founded by St. Bonifatius in 742. He appointed the first bishop of Würzburg, St. Burkhard. The bishops eventually created a duchy with its center in the city, which extended in the 12th century to Eastern Franconia. The city was the seat of several Imperial diets, including the one of 1180, in which Henry the Lion was banned from the Empire and his duchy was handed over to Otto of Wittelsbach.
The first church at the site of the cathedral was built as early as 788, and consecrated that same year by Charlemagne; the current building was constructed from 1040 to 1225 in Romanesque style. The University of Würzburg was founded in 1402 and re-founded in 1582.
View from Old Main Bridge to Würzburg Cathedral.
View from Old Main Bridge to Würzburg Cathedral.
The citizens of the city revolted several times against the bishop-prince, until definitively defeated in 1400. Later, Würzburg was a center of the German Peasants’ War; the castle was besieged unsuccessfully. Notable prince-bishops include Julius Echter von Mespelbrunn (1573-1617) and members of the Schönborn family, who commissioned a great number of the monuments of today’s city. In 1631, Swedish King Gustavus Adolphus invaded the town and destroyed the castle.
In 1720, the foundations of the Würzburg Residence were laid. In 1814, the town became part of the Bavarian state and a new bishopric was created seven years later, as the former one had been secolarized in 1802. The city had passed to Bavaria in 1803, but two years later, in the course of the Napoleonic Wars, it became the seat of the short-lived Duchy of Würzburg. Würzburg was restored to Bavaria in 1814.
During World War II, on March 16, 1945, about 85% of the city was destroyed by some 225 Lancaster bombers in 17 minutes by a British air raid. Most of the city’s churches, cathedrals, and other monuments did not survive, while the city center, dating from medieval times, was totally destroyed in a firestorm in which some 5,000 people perished. During the next 20 years, the buildings of historical importance were painstakingly and accurately replicated. The citizens who rebuilt the city included many women, called Trümmerfrauen (Rubblewomen). Relatively, Würzburg was destroyed more completely than was Dresden in a firebombing the previous month.
Since the end of the war, Würzburg has been host to the US Army’s 3rd Infantry Division, 1st Infantry Division, US Army Hospital and various other US military units who have maintained a presence in Germany. The local Würzburg economy benefited greatly from the US military presence. However, these units are due to withdraw from Würzburg by 2008 which brings to an end over 60 years of US military stationed in Würzburg.